Chapter 51 ~ “Luddism as Epistemology” by Langdon Winner September 29, 2009Posted by Shon in 5369, Carter, Philosophy of Technology, TCR, Technology.
Tags: 5369, Bookchin, Carter, Ellul, Epistemology, Goodman, Luddism, Luddites, Marcuse, Mumford, Philosophy of Technology, Technology, Theories of Technology, Winner
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Chapter 51 ~ “Luddism as Epistemology” by Langdon Winner (1977)
Winner begins his piece with a brief discussion of various suggestions (from Goodman, Bookchin, Marcuse, and Ellul) on how we can eliminate the problems that technology has brought (“brought” being a weak work in that we actually brought the technology into existence) into our lives.
Winner’s proposal contains the following suggestions:
- The search for new technological systems
- The development of these forms participation of those concerned with their everyday employment and effects.
- Integration of specific principles to guide further technological construction: Technology be intelligible to non-experts, Technology be flexible and mutable, Technology be judged according to the degree of dependency they tend to foster
- The understanding of technology as a means that can only be used when there is an understanding of “what is appropriate.”
Winner immediately offers up faults that might be seen in the suggestions, such as utopianism and unreality. Two barriers he sees with this notion are those people who ignore problems by not focusing on the problems with the system but by adding new features to the existing system and the fact that no one truly knows how to actually create a new system because no knowledge is present to do this.
He uses the example of the counterculture of the 60s to show how we can change the outward appearance of a problem, but it doesn’t eliminate the problem.
For Winner, the question of “means” must be examined for true change to take place, and here, he brings up the idea of dismantling systems in order to understand. However, this is not the breaking off machines or the smashing of machines and some believe Luddites to do. This is more self-reflection and examination because “the most interesting parts of the technological order in this regard are not those found in the structure of physical apparatus anyway. I have tried to suggest that the technologies of concern are actually forms of life – patterns of human consciousness and behavior adapted to a rational productive design” (608-9).
Luddism, in Winner’s mind, calls for using self as research. Disconnecting one’s self from technology and noting the needs, habits, or discomforts that arise because of the disconnection is important to understand how much we need a particular form of technology in our life and if there are other, more effective, less obtrusive forms of technology that can be built to blend better with our lives.
The most significant alternative in Luddism is not this, however. It is simply not fixing technological systems as they break down. To Winner, society seems to see this “fixing” as “growth,” but if we actually refused to fix these systems, we could possibly develop new technologies that benefit us.
Winner concludes his essay by taking us back 2,500 years to Aeschylus’ “Prometheus Bound,” to illustrate that these problems are not new. We just find new ways to reinvent the problems, or to escalate them. And perhaps it’s time to truly think about what we can do to help ourselves. “Perhaps means can be found to rid the human world of our self-made afflictions” (610).
Tags: 5369, Carter, Ellul, Philosophy of Technology, Technology, Theories of Technology
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In reading Ellul’s preface in the French edition of his book (1954) and the foreword in the revised American edition (1964), I can’t help but wonder what transpired in the decade because Ellul’s tone seems so fervent, so now in the ’64 foreword. From the preface, to the note to the reader, to the foreword, you can see the evolution of Ellul’s defining of technique, his discussion on technology, but in the ’64 foreword, there is almost a defensive tone to his words, as if he’s truly trying to wake the reader up, to show him/her that this isn’t about professors and researchers, but about each individual taking the initiative to understand the technological phenomenon so that each person can determine for him or herself how to use it. Only then will an individual be truly free and not trapped within the technological confines. These comments also connect with Ellul’s thoughts on the importance of conducting research on this phenomenon. He won’t even dare to offer solutions because he himself doesn’t fully understand the magnitude of the problems that has and may befall society because of the technological phenomenon and before we as a society can begin to shout solutions, we need know what we’re dealing with and how it can and will potentially affect us.